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Rehab Measures: Activities-Specific Balance Confidence Scale

Link to instrument

ABC Scale available here (other languages below) 

Title of Assessment

Activities-Specific Balance Confidence Scale 

Acronym

ABC

Instrument Reviewer(s)

Initially reviewed by Jason Raad, MS and the Rehabilitation Measures Team in 2010; Updated with references from the stroke, PD, elderly, and TBI populations by Julie Hamby, SPT and Ryan Lainez Rivadelo, SPT in 2011; Updated by Phyllis Palma, PT, DPT, Christopher Newman, PT, MPT, NCS, and the SCI EDGE task force of the Neurology Section of the APTA in 2012; Updated by Sue Saliga, PT, MS, DHSc and the TBI EDGE task force of the Neurology Section of the APTA in 2012; Updated with references for the Stroke and Parkinson's Disease populations by Sarah Menhennett, SPT and Jennifer Malwitz Ponce, SPT in 11/2012; Updated by Erin Hussey, PT, DPT, MS, NCS and the PD EDGE task force of the Neurology Section of the APTA in 2013; Updated by Jennifer Fay, PT, DPT, NCS and Tracy Rice, PT, MPH, MCS and the Vestibular EDGE task force of the Neurology Section of the APTA in 2013
 

Summary Date

3/22/2013 

Purpose

Subjective measure of confidence in performing various ambulatory activities without falling or experiencing a sense of unsteadiness

Description

  • 16-item self-report measure in which patients rate their balance confidence for performing activities. This stem is used to lead into each activity considered: "How confident are you that you will not lose your balance or become unsteady when you..."
  • Items are rated on a rating scale that ranges from 0 - 100
  • Score of zero represents no confidence, a score of 100 represents complete confidence
  • Overall score is calculated by adding item scores and then dividing by the total number of items

Area of Assessment

Balance Vestibular; Balance Non-Vestibular; Functional Mobility 

Body Part

Not Applicable 

ICF Domain

Activity 

Domain

ADL; Motor 

Assessment Type

Patient Reported Outcomes 

Length of Test

06 to 30 Minutes 

Time to Administer

10 to 20 minutes
Can be self-administered or via interview; recommended to administer by face-to-face interview (Powell & Meyers et al, 1995)

Number of Items

16 

Equipment Required

Paper survey includes visual analogue scale from 0 - 100%

Training Required

No Training

Type of training required

No Training 

Cost

Free 

Actual Cost

Free

Age Range

Adult: 18-64 years; Elderly adult: 65+ 

Administration Mode

Paper/Pencil 

Diagnosis

Multiple Sclerosis; Parkinson’s Disease; Stroke; Vestibular Disorders 

Populations Tested

  • Elderly
  • Multiple Sclerosis
  • Parkinson's Disease and Parkinsonism
  • Stroke
  • Unilateral Transtibial Amputation
  • Vestibular Disorders

Standard Error of Measurement (SEM)

Community-Dwelling Elderly:

(Nemmers et al, 2008; n = 203; mean age = 77.33 (7.59), Community-Dwelling Elderly)

  • SEM = 1.197

Parkinson’s Disease:

(Dal Bello-Haas et al, 2011; n = 24; mean age = 64.9 (8.0) years; mean time since diagnosis = 4.5 (4.3) years; H & Y Stages 1- 3; Stage 1: n = 13, Stage 2: n = 6, Stage 3: n = 5; mean MMSE scores = 27.4 (2.5) points, test retest by same rater at 2-week interval)

SEM = 4.01

 

Stroke:

(Botner et al, 2005; n = 77; mean age = 67 (8.8) years; average time since stroke = 4.0 (3.1) years, Chronic Stroke)

  • SEM = 6.81

(Salbach et al, 2006; n = 86; mean age (ABC) = 73 (10) years, (ABC-CF) = 70 (12) years, Stroke)

  • SEM for ABC = 5.05
  • SEM for ABC-CF = 5.13

Minimal Detectable Change (MDC)

Parkinsonism (included 35 PD and 2 Parkinson-plus syndromes):

(Steffen & Seney, 2008; n = 37; mean age = 71 (21); mean disease duration = 14 (6) years; Hoehn and Yahr Stages median score = 2 (range = 1 to 4); Stage 1: n = 3, Stage 2: n = 7, Stage 3: n = 9, Stage 4: n = 8; test retest by same rater at 1 week intervals; mean number of falls in the past 6 monts = 7; administered ABC via participant interview)

  • MDC = 13

(Dal Bello-Haas et al, 2011, Parkinson’s Disease)

  • MDC = 11.12

Minimally Clinically Important Difference (MCID)

Not Established

Cut-Off Scores

Fallers and Non-fallers:

(Lajoie & Gallagher, 2003; n = 125; mean age for fallers = 75.50 (3.14) and 73.80 (2.75) years for non-fallers, Fallers and Non-fallers)

  • Scores < 67% indicates a risk for falling; can accurately classify people who fall 84% of the time.

Parkinson’s Disease:

(Mak & Pang, 2009; n = 70 with idiopathic PD, 32 reporting 1 or more fals in 12 months; mean age for fallers = 64.1 (6.9) and 62.6 (7.8) years for non-fallers; mean duration of disease nonfallers = 7.2 (4.2) and fallers = 9.4 (5.3); H&Y stage of nonfallers = 2.8 (0.5) and fallers mean = 3.0 (0.3) MMSE > 23)

  • Cut-off score of 69%. Predictive of recurrent fals based on propective 12-month follow-up (AUC = 0.823, sensitivity = 93%, specificity 69%)

Stroke:

(Beninato et al, 2009; = 27; mean age for fallers = 61.2 (13.5) and 55.2 (11.6) years for non-fallers, Chronic Stroke)

  • Cut-off score of 81.1 can provide relative certainty that the individual did not have a history of multiple falls

Normative Data

Community Dwelling Older Adults:

(Huang & Wang, 2009; n = 168, mean age = 70.96 (6.91); mean Tinetti mobility score = 23.11 (6.39); mean FES score = 91.85 (16.89); Chinese language sample)

  • Mean (SD) scores = 79.89 (20.59)
Stroke:
(Botner et al, 2005, Chronic Stroke)
 
ABC Item and Total Score Descriptive Data:
Activity
Mean (SD)
Median
Range
ICC
95% CI
Walk around the house
83.3 (18.6)
90
30 – 100
0.89
0.76 – 0.95
Walk up and down stairs
76.3 (17.7)
77.5
50 – 100
0.53
0.17 – 0.77
Pick up a slipper from the floor
74.1 (25.5)
80
10 – 100
0.88

0.74 – 0.95

Reach at eye level
79.4 (20.9)
85
40 – 100
0.57
0.22 – 0.79
Reach while standing on your tiptoes
57.3 (29.3)
60
0 – 100

0.64

0.33 – 0.83

Stand on a chair to reach
38.1 (30.0)
40

0 – 95

0.81
0.61 – 0.92
Sweep the floor
70.0 (28.7)
80
10 – 100
0.59
0.25 – 0.80
Walk outside to nearby car
82.3 (19.4)
90
40 – 100
0.69
0.41 – 0.85
Get in and out of a car
84.2 (18.3)
95
40 – 100
0.73

0.47 – 0.87

Walk across a parking lot
78.8 (19.3)

80

40 – 100
0.75
0.50 – 0.88
Walk up and down a ramp
71.9 (22.8)
70

15 – 100

0.93
0.84 – 0.97
Walk in a crowded mall
72.9 (20.7)
70
40 – 100
0.69
0.41 – 0.85
Walk in a crowd or get bumped
65.4 (21.4)
62.5
25 – 100
0.58
0.23 – 0.79
Ride an escalator holding the rail
70.6 (26.0)
70
0 – 100
0.58
0.24 – 0.79
Ride an escalator not holding the rail
46.3 (30.5)
45
0 – 100
0.70
0.41 – 0.86
Walk on icy sidewalks
41.7 (28.7)
50
0 – 100
0.79
0.58 – 0.90
Total ABC score
68.3 (17.5)
64.5
40.6 – 98.8
0.85
0.68 – 0.93
 
Parkinson's Disease:
(Mak et al, 2012; n = 57 via convenience sample, mean age = 63.7 (8.5); mean duration PD diagnosis = 7.6 (4.7) years; H&Y Stages: mean = 2.5 (1.0); MMSE > 23/30; able to walk 6 meters x3 without device. All tested during "on" phase of medications; Correlational study completed in one session)
  • Mean ABC score = 73.6% (19.3)

Test-retest Reliability

Elderly Population:

(Powell & Myers, 1995; n = 21; Assessed in two-week intervals, Elderly Population)

  • Excellent test-retest reliability (= 0.92, p < 0.001)

Parkinson's Disease:

(Dal Bello-Haas et al, 2011, Parkinson’s Disease)

  • Excellent test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.79)

(Lohnes & Earhart et al, 2010; n = 89; mean age = 66 (8.9); mean disease duration = 8.2 (5.2); Hoehn & Yahr range 1 - 4 with mean = 2.3 (0.5))

  • Excellent test restest reliability (ICC = 0.96)

Parkinson's Disease and Parkinsonism:

(Steffen & Seney et al, 2008; n = 37; mean age 71 (12) years; Hoehn and Yahr Median Score = 2 (scores ranged from 1 to 4); mean number of falls in the past 6 months = 7; mean disease duration = 14 (6) years, Parkinsonism)Parkinson’s Disease)

  • Excellent test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.94)

Stroke:

(Botner et al, 2005, Chronic Stroke)

  • Excellent 4-week total score test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.85; 95% CI 0.68 – 0.93)
  • Adequate to excellent item level test-retest reliability (ICC ranged from 0.53 to 0.93)

Interrater/Intrarater Reliability

Not Established

Internal Consistency

Community Dwelling Older Adults:

(Huang & Wang, 2009, Community Dwelling Older Adults)

  • Excellent internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.96)

Geriatric Females:

(Talley et al, 2008; n = 272; mean age = 78.7 (4.9) years, Geriatric Females)

  • Excellent internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.95)

Parkinson's Disease and Parkinsonism:

(Steffen & Seney, 2008, Parkinson’s Disease)

  • Excellent internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.95)

(Dal Bello-Haas et al, 2011, Parkinson’s Disease)

  • Excellent internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.92)

Parkinson Disease and High level gait disorders:

(Peretz et al, 2006; Hebrew version of ABC scale; n = 157 subjects in 3 groups, > 24/30 on MMSE; Controls, n = 68; High-level gait disorders (HLGD), n = 70; Parkinson Disease, n = 19; Those with PD were H&Y stages 1 - 3; mean disease duration = 7.7 (5.2) years and on Levadopa)

  • Excellent internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.91)

Stroke:

(Salbach et al, 2006, Stroke)

·        Excellent internal consistency for ABC (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.94) and ABC-CF (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.93)

Criterion Validity (Predictive/Concurrent)

Geriatric Females:
(Talley et al, 2008, Geriatric Females)
 
Correlations between the ABC and Other Clinical Assessments:
SAFE
-0.65*
Balance Test
0.57*
Gait Speed
0.51*
TUG

-0.39*

Activity Restrictions
-0.43*
Depression Scale
-0.38*
Fall History
-0.20*
Medical Condition

-0.32*

Assistive Device Use

0.51*

*p < 0.001
 

Vestibular Disorders:

(Horak et al, 2009; n = 22 subjects with and without balance disorders including vestibular (5), PD (3), and peripheral neuroopathy; mean age = 63 (10) years, Vestibular Disorders)

  • Excellent correlation between the Balance Evaluation Systems Test (BESTest) and the ABC Scale (r = 0.636, p < 0.01)

(Legters et al 2005; n = 137 adults diagnosed with peripheral vestibular disorder; mean age 60.8 years)

  • Adequate correlation between the Dynamic Gait Index (DGI) and the ABC scale (r = 0.58, p<0.001) in total sample.
  • Excellent correlation between the DGI and the ABC Scale in patients with mild or moderate caloric weakness (r = 0.65)
  • Adequate correlation between ABC Scale and the DGI for patients with severe or total weakness (r = 0.48)

(Morgan et al., 2013; n = 53 individuals with dizziness and imbalance)

  • Excellent correlation between ABC and FES-I (r = -0.84)

(Marchetti et al., 2011; n = 95 adults older than 65 years with signs and symptoms of vestibular dysfunction)

  • Adequate correlation between ABC and TUG (r = -0.40; p < 0.01)
  • Adequate correlation between ABC and DGI (r = 0.37; p < 0.01)
  • Adequate correlation between ABC and SF-36 (r = 0.41; p < 0.01)

Parkinson Disease:

(Mak & Pang, 2009; n = 70 with idiopathic PD, 32 reporting 1 or more falls in 12 months; Mean age nonfallers = 62.6 (7.8) and fallers = 64.1 (6.9); mean duration of disease nonfallers = 7.2 (4.2) and fallers = 9.4 (5.3) HY stage of Nonfallers = 2.8 (0.5) and fallers mean 3.0 (0.3) MMSE > 23)

  • Regression analysis: Most significant predictor of recurrent falls was 1) fall history (F = 32.57; p < 0.001); 2) UPDRS motor (F = 25.23, p < 0.001), and 3) ABC score (F = 18.84, p < 0.001)
  • Previous fall history, UPDRS-motor score and ABC score accurately predict recurrent falls (prospective 12 mo) based on regression analysis (accuracy = 87%, sensitivity = 93% and specificity = 86%)
  • Recurrent fallers had higher HY stage (p < 0.05), Higher UPDRS motor scores (p < 0.01) and lower ABC scores (p < 0.001) than nonfallers

Parkinson Disease:

(Mak et al, 2012)

  • Adequate correlation between ABC score and knee muscle strength (r = 0.301,P = 0.029)
  • Excellent inverse correlation between ABC score with the UPDRS-Posture & Gait (PG) score (r = −0.661, P < 0.001)

Parkinson's Disease;

(Lohnes & Earhart et al, 2010)

Poor to Adequate Correlation ABC and other clinical measures
Correlation *significant
p value reported
Berg Balance Score (Adequaqte)
0.505*
< 0.001
Functional Reach Test (Poor)
0.184
= 0.184
Single Limb Stance (Poor)
0.263*
< 0.05
Tandem Stance (Adequate)
0.357*
< 0.05
6 minute walk test (Adequate)
0.458
< 0.001
TUG (Adequate)
-0.372* inverse
< 0.001
PIGD (Adequate)
-0.387* inverse
< 0.001
UPDRS-III (Poor)
-0.221* inverse
< 0.05

Construct Validity (Convergent/Discriminant)

Community-Dwelling Elderly:

(Wrisley et al, 2010; n = 35 community dwelling older adults; mean age = 72.9 (7.8) years, Community-Dwelling Elderly)

  • Adequate correlation between ABC score and Functional Gait Assessment (r = 0.53, p < 0.001)

(Filiatrault et al, 2007; n = 200 community dwelling seniors involved in an effectiveness study of a falls prevention program; mean age = 73.0 (7.4) years, Community-Dwelling Elderly)

  • Excellent correlation between ABC-S and ABC Scale (r = 0.94, p < 0.001)

(Landers et al, 2011; Part 1, questionnaire development: n = 39 residents of an assisted living facility; mean age = 85.03 (5.1) years; Part 2, psychometric testing; n = 63 community dwelling individuals with varying health conditions; mean age = 72.2 (7.2) years, Community-Dwelling Elderly)

  • Excellent correlation between ABC and Fear of Falling Avoidance Behavior Questionnaire (FFABQ) (r = -0.678, p < 0.01)

(Hatch et al, 2003; n = 50 community dwelling elderly people; mean age = 81.7 (6.7) years, Community-Dwelling Elderly)

  • Excellent correlation between ABC score and Berg Balance Scale (BBS) (r = 0.752, p < 0.01)
  • Excellent correlation between ABC score and Timed Up & Go Test (TUG) (r = 0.698, p < 0.01)

Stroke:

(Salbach et al, 2006, Stroke)

Spearman (95% CI)

Measure (unit or scoring)

ABC (n=51)

ABC CF (n=35)

SF-36 PF Scale (range, 0-100)

0.60 (0.39-0.76)

0.56 (0.29-0.76)

EQ VAS (range, 0-100)

0.52 (0.28 to 0.69)

0.68 (0.44 to 0.82)

BBS (range, 0-56)

0.42 (0.16 to 0.62)

0.49 (0.19 to 0.71)

Maximum walking speed (m/s)

0.43 (0.18 to 0.63)

0.53 (0.24 to 0.74)

Comfortable walking speed (m/s)

0.42 (0.16 to 0.62)

0.48 (0.17 to 0.70)

6MWT (m)

0.40 (0.13 to 0.61)

0.48 (0.18 to 0.70)

Barthel Index (range, 0-100)

0.37 (0.11 to 0.59)

0.45 (0.14 to 0.68)

TUG (s)

-0.34 (-0.07 to -0.56)

-0.52 (-0.22 to -0.73)

GDS (range, 0-30)

-0.30 (-0.03 to -0.53)

-0.61 (-0.34 to -0.79)

(Botner et al, 2005, Chronic Stroke)

  • Adequate correlation between the ABC total score and the BBS score (r = 0.36, p < 0.001)
  • Adequate correlation between the ABC total score and gait speed (r = 0.48, p < 0.001)

Traumatic Brain Injury:

(Inness et al, 2011; n = 35 patients with Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) (13 in-patient/22 out-patient); mean age = 28.7(10.6) years, TBI)

  • Excellent correlation between Community Balance and Mobility Scale (CB & M) and ABC scores (r = 0.60, p = 0.011)

Parkinson Disease:

(Peretz et al, 2006)

  • Distinguish those with Parkinson Disease vs. Control group (sensitivity = 58%; specificity = 96%)
  • Distinguish high level gait disorders (HLGD) vs. those with Parkinson Disease (sensitivity = 97%; specificity = 32%)
  • Distinguish those with HLGDs vs. Controls (sensitivity = 96%; specificity = 96%)

(Bello Haas et al; identifies scale best at distinguishing stage 1 from stage 3 since only that reached significance at p = 0.007)

  • ABC scores distinguish those in HY stage 1 and stage 3, 13.90 (95% CI: 3.67 - 23.14, (p = 0.007))

 (Mak & Pang et al, 2009)

  • PD fallers significantly lower ABC scores (p < 0.05), compared to PD non-fallers; PD non-fallers significantly lower ABC scores (p < 0.05) than control
  • ABC of > 80 signif associated with lower falls risk (after accounting for age, gender, disease duration, depression); OR=0.06, CI = 0.01, 0.65, p = 0.02. Whereas, moderate ABC scores (50 - 80%) were not significantly associated with reduced fall risk (OR= 0.10, CI 0.01, 1.29; p = 0.078)

Vestibular Disorders:

(Whitney et al,1999; n = 71 adults from a local Balance and Vestibular Clinic.

  • Excellent correlation between the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI) and the ABC Nonparametric Spearman Rank Order Correlation Coefficient rs = -0.6751 for patients ≤ 64 years p < 0.0005.
  • Excellent correlation between the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI) and the ABC Nonparametric Spearman Rank Order Correlation Coefficient rs = -0.6359 for patients ≥ 64 years p < 0.0005.
  • Excellent correlation between the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI) and the ABC Nonparametric Spearman Rank Order Correlation Coefficient rs = -0.6350 for patients total sample p < 0.0005.

 

Content Validity

  • Clinicians were asked to "name the 10 most important activities, essential to independent living, that while requiring some position change or walking, would be safe and nonhazardous to most elderly persons."
  • A sample of seniors were asked the above question, in addition to the following question: "Are you afraid of falling during any normal daily activities, and if so, which ones?" (Powell & Myers, 1995)

Face Validity

Not Established

Floor/Ceiling Effects

Community-dwelling Older Adults:

(Huang & Wang, 2009; n = 174 community-dwelling adults aged 60 and older; Taiwanese sample, Community-Dwelling Older Adults)

  • Less-frail participants scoring above 80 on the ABC were unlikely to improve their balance confidence after completing physical activity programs.

Stroke:

(Salbach et al, 2006, Stroke)

  • 75% of subjects scored between 20% and 80% out of 100%, which would suggest no floor or ceiling effects for the total score of the ABC scale

(Botner et al, 2005, Chronic Stroke)

  • More than 80% of the sample scored between 40 and 80 suggesting there were minimal floor or ceiling effects

Responsiveness

Community Dwelling Older Adults:

(Huang & Wang, 2009; 8 weeks between assessments, Community-Dwelling Older Adults)

  • Mean change scores = -3.58 (6.61); not statistically different (t = 1.894, p = 0.07)

Geriatric Females:

(Talley et al, 2008, Geriatric Females)

  • Standardized response means for the ABC were 0.05
  • Participants in a fall prevention group had a mean change score of -1.1 for the ABC

Professional Association Recommendations

Recommendations for use of the instrument from the Neurology Section of the American Physical Therapy Association’s Multiple Sclerosis Taskforce (MSEDGE), Parkinson’s Taskforce (PD EDGE), Spinal Cord Injury Taskforce (PD EDGE), Stroke Taskforce (StrokEDGE), Traumatic Brain Injury Taskforce (TBI EDGE), and Vestibular Taskforce (VEDGE) are listed below. These recommendations were developed by a panel of research and clinical experts using a modified Delphi process.

 

For detailed information about how recommendations were made, please visit:  http://www.neuropt.org/go/healthcare-professionals/neurology-section-outcome-measures-recommendations

 

Abbreviations:

HR

Highly Recommend

R

Recommend

LS / UR

Reasonable to use, but limited study in target group  / Unable to Recommend

NR

Not Recommended

 

Recommendations for use based on acuity level of the patient:

 

Acute

(CVA < 2 months post)

(SCI < 1 month post)

(Vestibular < 6 weeks post)

Subacute

(CVA 2 to 6 months)

(SCI 3 to 6 months)

Chronic

(Vestibular > 6 weeks weeks post)

SCI EDGE

LS

LS

LS

StrokEDGE

NR

R

R

VEDGE

R

R

R

 

Recommendations Based on Parkinson Disease Hoehn and Yahr stage:

 

I

II

III

IV

V

PD EDGE

R

R

R

LS/UR

NR

 

 

Recommendations based on level of care in which the assessment is taken:

 

Acute Care

Inpatient Rehabilitation

Skilled Nursing Facility

Outpatient

Rehabilitation

Home Health

MS EDGE

R

R

R

R

R

StrokEDGE

NR

R

R

R

R

TBI EDGE

LS

LS

LS

LS

LS

 

Recommendations based on SCI AIS Classification:

 

AIS A/B

AIS C/D

SCI EDGE

NR

LS

 

 

 

Recommendations for use based on ambulatory status after brain injury:

 

Completely Independent

Mildly dependant

Moderately Dependant

Severely Dependant

TBI EDGE

LS

LS

NR

NR

 

 

Recommendations based on EDSS Classification:

 

EDSS 0.0 – 3.5

EDSS 4.0 – 5.5

EDSS 6.0 – 7.5

EDSS 8.0 – 9.5

MS EDGE

R

R

R

NR

 

 

Recommendations based on vestibular diagnosis

 

Peripheral

Central

Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV)

Other

VEDGE

LS

LS

LS

LS

 

 

Recommendations for entry-level physical therapy education and use in research:

 

Students should learn to administer this tool? (Y/N)

Students should be exposed to tool? (Y/N)

Appropriate for use in intervention research studies? (Y/N)

Is additional research warranted for this tool (Y/N)

MS EDGE

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

PD EDGE

No

No

Yes

Not reported

SCI EDGE

No

No

No

Not reported

StrokEDGE

No

Yes

Yes

Not reported

TBI EDGE

No

Yes

Yes

Not reported

VEDGE

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Considerations

For some clients, need to periodically redirect to ensure they are considering confidence in mobility rather than responding based on their usual level of activity to each of the items listed.

Turkish Version (Karapolat et al., 2010)

  • Tested on individuals with unilateral vestibular disease
  • Adequate to Excellent  individual item ICC = 0.67-0.92
  • Adequate to Excellent individual item Cronbach ɑ = 0.67-0.93
  • Excellent whole scale Cronbach ɑ = 0.95
  • Adequate  DHI and ABC correlation r = 0.51-0.54; p < 0.05   

Translated ABC Scale

Spanish (p48):
http://www.huntingtonargentina.com.ar/informacion_util/Guiafisioterapeutas.pdf

These translations, and links to them, are subject to the Terms and Conditions of Use of the Rehab Measures Database.  RIC is not responsible for and does not endorse the content, products or services of any third-party website, and does not make any representations regarding its quality, content or accuracy.  If you would like to contribute a language translation to the RMD, please contact us at rehabmeasures@ric.org.

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Bibliography

Alghwiri, A. A., Marchetti, G. F., et al. (2011). "Content comparison of self-report measures used in vestibular rehabilitation based on the international classification of functioning, disability and health." Physical Therapy 91(3): 346-357.

Beninato, M., Portney, L. G., et al. (2009). "Using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health as a framework to examine the association between falls and clinical assessment tools in people with stroke." Phys Ther 89(8): 816-825. Find it on PubMed 

Botner, E. M., Miller, W. C., et al. (2005). "Measurement properties of the Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale among individuals with stroke." Disability and Rehabilitation 27(4): 156-163. Find it on PubMed

Clendaniel, R. A. (2000). "Outcome measures for assessment of treatment of the dizzy and balance disorder patient." Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America 33(3): 519-533.

Dal Bello-Haas, V., Klassen, L., et al. (2011). "Psychometric Properties of Activity, Self-Efficacy, and Quality-of-Life Measures in Individuals with Parkinson Disease." Physiother Can 63(1): 47-57. Find it on PubMed

Duracinsky, M., Mosnier, I., et al. (2007). "Literature review of questionnaires assessing vertigo and dizziness, and their impact on patients' quality of life." Value in health 10(4): 273-284.

Filiatrault, J., Gauvin, L., et al. (2007). "Evidence of the psychometric qualities of a simplified version of the Activities-specific Balance Confidence scale for community-dwelling seniors." Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 88(5): 664-672. Find it on PubMed

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Year published

1995 

Instrument in PDF Format

Yes 
Approval Status Approved 
 
Attachments
Created at 11/10/2010 6:39 PM  by Jason Raad 
Last modified at 8/28/2014 2:54 PM  by Jason Raad