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Rehab Measures: Brown Location Test

Link to instrument

http://www.blttest.com/index.html 

Title of Assessment

Brown Location Test 

Acronym

BLT

Instrument Reviewer(s)

Link, J.S, Lashley, L.K.

Summary Date

11/7/2016 

Purpose

The Brown Location Test is designed to assess visual memory for location of identical objects within a persons visual field.
 
The BLT was originally developed to assess visual memory difficulties that are generally associated with right temporal lobe epilepsy or cortical damage within the right medial temporal lobe.
 

Description

The BLT as two alternative forms (A & B), has been validated in samples between ages 17 and 89, and can be administered using either a manual or computer version.

 

Instrument instructions are included in the stimulus manual, and the computerized version require only a mouse to click on the correct location.

 

·      12 items per trial are scored as 0 or 1

·      Scores for Learning trials 1-5 are tallied and compared against the mean and standard deviation for their age range

The BLT consists of several learning trials, interference trials, and memory trials:

  • Five learning trials: The same 12 red dot locations are presented for each trial.
  • An interference trial with presentation of black dots.
  • Short delay recall for 12 original dots, a long delay recall (20 min) followed by rotated free recall and recognition
    • Immediate recall (min/max) score: 0/60
    • Short delay (min/max) score: 0/12
    • Long delay(min/max) score: 0/12

Area of Assessment

Attention and Working Memory; Cognition; Vision & Perception 

Body Part

Not Applicable 

ICF Domain

Body Function 

Domain

Cognition; Sensory 

Assessment Type

Performance Measure 

Length of Test

31 to 60 Minutes 

Time to Administer

40 Minutes (Includes 20 Minute Delay)

Number of Items

12 items are presented per trial. 

Equipment Required

For the hand administered version, a test booklet, red chips, and response forms are required. For the computer program administration, a computer and working mouse are required.

Training Required

Yes. Reading an Article/Manual.

Type of training required

Reading an Article/Manual 

Cost

Not Free 

Actual Cost

The BLT is not free; however, it can be purchased for a significantly reduced price for research purposes.

  • BLT Kits Hand Admin $175 USD
  • BLT Computer Admin $175 USD
  • Both Hand and Comp $250 USD
  • Research Kit (Pre-Approved) $80 USD

Age Range

Adult: 18-64 years; Elderly adult: 65+ 

Administration Mode

Computer 

Diagnosis

Acquired Brain Injury; Traumatic Brain Injury 

Populations Tested

Epilepsy

Standard Error of Measurement (SEM)

Not Established

Minimal Detectable Change (MDC)

Not Established

Minimally Clinically Important Difference (MCID)

Not Established

Cut-Off Scores

Not Established

Normative Data

Brown et al., 2007 (n= 110; 79 females, 31 males. 84% Caucasian, 11% African American, 4% Asian American, and 1% Hispanic. The average age was 33.15 years (SD= 16.1); average education was 14.8 years (SD = 2.43).

 

Mean Scores for the two forms of the BLT

 

BLT-A (n=105)

BLT-B (n=46)

Subtest Score

Mean

Standard Deviation

Mean

Standard Deviation

Trial 1

5.02

1.87

5.17

2.28

Trial 2

6.80

2.21

6.63

2.11

Trial 3

8.06

2.45

8.15

1.99

Trial 4

9.24

2.15

9.46

2.00

Trial 5

10.17

1.92

10.43

1.72

Trials 1-5

39.28

8.57

39.85

8.35

Interference

4.58

2.13

4.59

1.64

Short Delay

8.80

2.50

9.00

2.40

Long Delay

8.81

2.59

8.93

2.48

Rotated Long Delay

7.56

2.71

8.33

2.33

Recognition Total

19.02

2.73

19.41

2.68

True Hits

9.87

1.57

10.04

1.30

False Positives

2.70

1.75

2.46

1.95

 

Brown et al. 2015 (n=29; 12 males and 17 females; Mean Age= 36.65, SD= 14.23)

 

Scores provided in standard z-scores:

  • BLT Learning Trial for LTLE (mean = -0.31; SD = 1.12)
  • BLT Long Delay for LTLE (mean = -0.25; SD = 1.02)
  • BLT Learning Trial for RTLE (mean = -1.45; SD = 0.86)
  • BLT for Long Delay for RTLE (mean = -1.75; SD = 0.84)

Test-retest Reliability

(Brown et al. 2007)

  • Excellent split-half reliabilities for Learning Trials 1-5
    • .82 for the BLT-A (N = 110) and .78 for the BLT-B (N = 41)
  • Excellent alternate form test-retest reliabilities
    • r= .84 for Trials 1-5
    • Pearson correlation coefficients significant (p < .01) for each subtest of the BLT and are comparable to those reported for the CVLT-II standardization sample

Interrater/Intrarater Reliability

Not Applicable

Internal Consistency

Brown et al., 2015 references Brown et al., 2007 saying it showed good internal consistency.

Criterion Validity (Predictive/Concurrent)

Not Established

Construct Validity (Convergent/Discriminant)

Construct Validity: (Brown et al., 2007)

 

  • Demonstrated Evidence for construct validity via a Factor analysis of a brief neuropsychological test battery that revealed that all of the BLT subtests loaded on a single visual memory factor.
  • Factor Analysis:
    • 3 factors accounted for 59% of the variance
    • First factor accounted for 31.31% of total variance, consisted of all the BLT subtest scores.
    • The second factor accounted for 19.65% of variance, consisted of all the CVLT-II subtest scores.
    • The third factor accounted for 8.17% of variance and consisted of the Vocabulary, Matrix Reasoning, Estimated Intellectual Functioning standardized scores
    • Cancellation test loaded minimally on each of the three factors.

Content Validity

Not Statistically Assessed

Face Validity

Not Statistically Assessed

Floor/Ceiling Effects

Not Established

Responsiveness

Not Established

Professional Association Recommendations

None

Considerations

There is currently limited research on the BLT as it is a relatively new measure. Additional research is necessary to established the validity and reliability of the BLT across various patient populations.

Bibliography

Abrahams, S., Morris, R. G., Polkey, C. E., Jarosz, J. M., Cox, T. C. S., Graves, M., & Pickering, A. (1999). Hippocampal involvement in spatial and working memory: a structural MRI analysis of patients with unilateral mesial temporal lobe sclerosis. Brain and cognition, 41(1), 39-65.

 

Abrahams, S., Pickering, A., Polkey, C. E., & Morris, R. G. (1997). Spatial memory deficits in patients with unilateral damage to the right hippocampal formation. Neuropsychologia, 35(1), 11-24.

 

Bornstein, R. A., & Chelune, G. J. (1988). Factor structure of the wechsler memory scale-revised. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 2(2), 107-115.

 

Benton, A. L. (1974). Visual retention test. Psychological Corporation.

 

Brown, F. C., Hirsch, L. J., & Spencer, D. D. (2015). Spatial memory for asymmetrical dot locations predicts lateralization among patients with presurgical mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Epilepsy & Behavior, 52, 19-24.

 

Brown, F. C., Roth, R. M., & Katz, L. J. (2015). Allocentric but not egocentric visual memory difficulties in adults with ADHD may represent cognitive inefficiency. Psychiatry research, 228(3), 649-658.

 

Brown, F. C., Roth, R. M., Saykin, A. J., & Beverly-Gibson, G. (2007). A new measure of visual location learning and memory: development and psychometric properties for the Brown Location Test (BLT). The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 21(5), 811-825.

 

Brown, F. C., Tuttle, E., Westerveld, M., Ferraro, F. R., Chmielowiec, T., Vandemore, M., ... & Spencer, D. D. (2010). Visual memory in patients after anterior right temporal lobectomy and adult normative data for the Brown Location Test. Epilepsy & Behavior, 17(2), 215-220.

 

Conroy, S. K., McDonald, B. C., Ahles, T. A., West, J. D., & Saykin, A. J. (2013). Chemotherapy-induced amenorrhea: a prospective study of brain activation changes and neurocognitive correlates. Brain imaging and behavior, 7(4), 491-500.

 

Golby, A. J., Poldrack, R. A., Brewer, J. B., Spencer, D., Desmond, J. E., Aron, A. P., & Gabrieli, J. D. (2001). Material-specific lateralization in the medial temporal lobe and prefrontal cortex during memory encoding. Brain, 124(9), 1841-1854.

 

Heinly, M., Vitelli, K., Murah, J., Mangini, D., Stryjewski, A., Brown, C., & Brown, F. (2015, September). An Alternate Forms Reliability Study of the Brown Location Test Paper vs. Computer-Based Versions within a Single Testing Session. In Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology (Vol. 30, No. 6, pp. 586-586). Great Clarendon St., Oxford OX2 6DP, England: Oxford University Press.

 

Lee, T., Yip, J. T., & JonesGotman, M. (2002). Memory deficits after resection from left or right anterior temporal lobe in humans: a metaanalytic review. Epilepsia, 43(3), 28

 

Moye, J. (1997). Nonverbal memory assessment with designs: Construct validity and clinical utility. Neuropsychology review, 7(4), 157-170.

 

Osterrieth, P. A. (1944). The test of copying a complex figure: A contribution to the study of perception and memory. Archives de Psychologie, 30, 286-356.

 

Parslow, D. M., Rose, D., Brooks, B., Fleminger, S., Gray, J. A., Giampietro, V., ... & Vythelingum, G. N. (2004). Allocentric spatial memory activation of the hippocampal formation measured with fMRI. Neuropsychology, 18(3), 450.

 

Wechsler, D. (1945). A standardized memory scale for clinical use. The Journal of Psychology, 19(1), 87-95.

Year published

2004 

Instrument in PDF Format

No 
Approval Status Approved 
 
Attachments
Created at 9/27/2016 10:08 AM  by Jason Raad 
Last modified at 11/28/2016 4:27 PM  by Jason Raad