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Rehab Measures: Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale 10-Item

Link to instrument

Link to Insturment 

Title of Assessment

Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale 10-Item 

Acronym

CD-RISC 10

Instrument Reviewer(s)

Initial review completed by Melissa Ivins-Lukse at the Illinois Institute of Technology (2015). Reviewed and revised by Kristian Nitsch, MS (3/4/2015).

Summary Date

1/13/2015 

Purpose

The CD-RISC 10 is intended to measure resilience. The CD-RISC 10 is a shortened version of the original 25-item CD-RISC (Conner & Davidson, 2003; Campbell-Sills & Stein, 2007).

Description

  • The CD-RISC 10 is a unidimensional self-reported scale consisting of 10-items measuring resilience.
  • Respondents rate items on a 5-point Likert scale, ranging from 0 (not true at all) to 4 (true nearly all the time).
  • Each item has a minimum score of 0 and a maximum score of 4.
  • Total scores for the CD-RISC 10 range from a minimum of 0 to a maximum of 40. Total scores are calculated by summing all 10 items. A higher score indicates higher resilience. None of the items are reverse scored.

Area of Assessment

Personality; Stress and Coping 

Body Part

Not Applicable 

ICF Domain

 

Domain

Emotion 

Assessment Type

Patient Reported Outcomes 

Length of Test

05 Minutes or Less 

Time to Administer

5 minutes

Number of Items

10 

Equipment Required

Test Form, Pencil/Pen

Training Required

The CD-RISC 10 test manual is included with purchase of the scale.

Type of training required

Reading an Article/Manual 

Cost

Not Free 

Actual Cost

Instrument cost depends on usage specifications, and is determined after a request-for-use has been submitted.

In order to obtain the scale, complete and submit the project information form by following the above link. Terms of use and payment details are determined based on the information provided on the submission form. Once this has been completed, the scale and users’ manual will be promptly forwarded.

Age Range

Adolescent: 13-17 years; Adult: 18-64 years; Elderly adult: 65+ 

Administration Mode

Paper/Pencil 

Diagnosis

 

Populations Tested

• Undergraduate Students
• First-year Spanish University Students
• Normative Student Sample
• Former Ugandan Child Soldiers
• Communities Affected by Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill
• Chinese Earthquake Survivors (with and without PTSD)
• College Students Recruited from Classrooms & Mental Health Offices
• French Women with Cancer (in remission) & with no History of Cancer
• Low-income, African American Men
• Older Native Americans
• General Community Sample

Standard Error of Measurement (SEM)

Earthquake Survivors (China) (Calculated from Wang, Shi, Zhang, & Zhang, 2010)

  • Overall Resilience Score: SEM= 2.35

Minimal Detectable Change (MDC)

Earthquake Survivors (China) (Calculated from Wang, Shi, Zhang, & Zhang, 2010)

  • Overall Resilience Score: MDC= 6.50

Minimally Clinically Important Difference (MCID)

Not Established

Cut-Off Scores

Not Established

Normative Data

Undergraduate Students (Campbell-Sills & Stein, 2007)

** (n= 1,622)

  • Mean Score= 27.21, SD = 5.84

General Community Sample (Campbell-Sills, Forde, & Stein, 2009)

**(n= 764; Mean Age= 47.5, SD= 14.87)

  • Mean Score= 31.78, SD= 5.41

Communities Affected by Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill (Grattan, Roberts, Mahan, McLaughlin, Otwell, & Morris, 2011)

Indirect Exposure (n= 71)

  • Mean Score= 29.07, SD= 6.16

Direct Exposure (n= 23)

  • Mean Score= 29.87, SD= 5.86

First Year Spanish University Students (Notario-Pacheco, et al., 2011)

**(n= 681, Mean Age= 20.08, SD= 4.12)

Total Sample (n= 681)

  • Mean Score= 27.41, SD= 6.36

Male Student (n= 175)

  • Mean Score= 29.47, SD= 5.80

Female Students (n= 506)

  • Mean Score= 26.46, SD= 6.43

Students Over 25 Years

  • Mean Score= 27.06, SD= 6.36

Students Under 25 Years

  • Mean Score= 29.86, SD= 6.52

** (Female students scored significantly lower than male students (p<.001) and older students scored lower than younger students (p<.05))

Test-retest Reliability

Earthquake Survivors (China) (Wang, Shi, Zhang, & Zhang, 2010)

**Assessed earthquake survivors (n= 40, Mean Age= 40.95, SD= 9.39) at two time points: baseline and two weeks post-baseline.

  • Excellent test-retest reliability over two weeks (r= .90)

Interrater/Intrarater Reliability

Not Established

Internal Consistency

Earthquake Survivors (China) (Wang, Shi, Zhang, & Zhang, 2010)

  • Excellent (Cronbach’s Alpha = 0.91)*

Former Ugandan Child Soldiers (Klasan, Oettingen, Daniels, Post, Hoyer, & Adam, 2010)

  • Adequate (Cronbach's Alpha= .75)

Older Native Americans (Goins, Gregg, & Fiskes, 2012)

  • Excellent (Cronbach’s Alpha = 0.88)

College Students Recruited from Classrooms and Mental Health Offices (Hartley, 2012)

  • Recruited from Mental Health Offices: Excellent (Cronbach’s Alpha= 0.9)*
  • Recruited from Classrooms: Excellent (Cronbach’s Alpha = 0.87)

General Community Sample (Campbell-Sills, Forde, & Stein, 2009)

  • Adequate (Cronbach’s Alpha = 0.75)

Undergraduate students (Campbell-Sills & Stein, 2007)

  • Excellent (Cronbach’s Alpha = 0.85)

* Scores higher than .9 may indicate redundancy in the scale questions.

Criterion Validity (Predictive/Concurrent)

Not Established

Construct Validity (Convergent/Discriminant)

Convergent validity:

Low-income African-American Men (Coates, Phares, & Dedrick, 2013)

  • Resilience positively correlated with spirituality (r = .60, p<.001)

China Earthquake Survivors (Wang, Shi, Zhang, & Zhang, 2010)

  • Individuals considered to have “probable PTSD” via the Los Angeles Symptom Checklist demonstrated had lower resiliency scores compared to healthy controls.
    • Adequate (r= -0.53, p<.001)

Older Native Americans (Goins, Gregg, & Fiskes, 2012)

  • Negatively correlated with the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-DS)
    • Adequate (r= -.51, p < .001)
  • Positively correlated with the General Self-Efficacy Scale
    • Adequate (r= .45, p < .001)
  • Positively correlated with the Personal Self-Mastery Scale
    • Adequate (r= .31, p <.001)
  • Positively correlated with the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support scale
    • Poor (r= .21, p < .01)

College Students Recruited from Classrooms & Mental Health Offices (Hartley, 2012)

  • Positively correlated with self-perceptions of better mental health (measured with MHI-5) for students recruited from:
    • Mental Health Offices: Adequate (r= .34, p < .001)
    • Classrooms: Poor (r= .16, p < .000).
  • Positively correlated with Social Support for student recruited from:
    • Mental Health Offices: Adequate (r= .40)
    • Classrooms: Adequate (r= .57)

Former Ugandan Child Soldiers (Klasen et al., 2010)

  • Positively correlated with a positive future orientation
    • Adequate (r = .30, p <.001)

Communities Affected by Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill (Grattan, Roberts, Mahan, McLaughlin, Otwell, & Morris, 2011)

  • Individuals who experienced income loss reported significantly lower resilience, (Mean= 28.51, SD= 5.51, than those whose incomes remained stable (30.02, SD= 6.56) (p= .04).

Content Validity

Not Established

Face Validity

Not Established

Floor/Ceiling Effects

Not Established

Responsiveness

Not Established

Professional Association Recommendations

None

Considerations

None

Bibliography

Campbell-Sills, L. & Stein, M. B. (2007). Psychometric Analysis and Refinement of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC): Validation of a 10-Item Measure of Resilience. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 20(6), 1019-1028.

Campbell-Sills, L., Forde, D. R., & Stein, M. B. (2009). Demographic and childhood environmental predictors of resilience in a community sample. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 43(12), 1007-1012.

Coates, E. E., Phares, V., & Dedrick, R. F. (2013). Psychometric properties of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale 10 among low-income, African American men. Psychological assessment, 25(4), 1349.

Connor, K. M. & Davidson, J.R.T. (2013, May 22). Submit Online Request Form. Retrieved from http://www.cd-risc.com/cd-risc/requestform.shtml.

Goins, R. T., Gregg, J. J., & Fiske, A. (2012). Psychometric Properties of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale With Older American Indians: The Native Elder Care Study. Research on Aging, 35(2), 123-143.

Grattan, L. M., Roberts, S., Mahan, W. T., McLaughlin, P. K., Otwell, W., & Morris, J. (2011). The early psychological impacts of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill on Florida and Alabama communities. Environmental health perspectives, 119(6), 838-843.

Hartley, M. T. (2012). Assessing and promoting resilience: An additional tool to address the increasing number of college students with psychological problems. Journal of College Counseling, 15(1), 37-51.

Klasen, F., Oettingen, G., Daniels, J., Post, M., Hoyer, C., & Adam, H. (2010). Posttraumatic resilience in former Ugandan child soldiers. Child development, 81(4), 1096-1113.

Scali, J., Gandubert, C., Ritchie, K., Soulier, M., Ancelin, M. L., & Chaudieu, I. (2012). Measuring resilience in adult women using the 10-items Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC). Role of trauma exposure and anxiety disorders. PloS one, 7(6), e39879.

Wang, L., Shi, Z., Zhang, Y. & Zhang, Z. (2010). Psychometric properties of the 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale in Chinese earthquake victims. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 64, 499-504.

Year published

2007 

Instrument in PDF Format

Yes 
Approval Status Approved 
 
Attachments
Created at 3/4/2015 10:49 AM  by Jason Raad 
Last modified at 4/23/2015 2:04 PM  by Jason Raad