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Rehab Measures: Five Times Sit to Stand Test

Link to instrument

Available from the University of Missouri's website 

Title of Assessment

Five Times Sit to Stand Test  

Acronym

FTSST or 5xSST

Instrument Reviewer(s)

Initially reviewed by Susan Deems-Dluhy, PT, NCS in 2010; Updated with references from the Parkinson's Disease and Cerebral Palsy populations by Yamit Saadia-Redleaf, SPT and Julian Scheff, SPT in 11/2012; Updated by Alicia Esposito, PT, NCS and the PD EDGE task force of the Neurology Section of the APTA in 2013. Reviewed and updated by Karen Lambert, PT, MPT, NCS and Linda Horn, PT, DscPT, MHS, NCS and the Vestibular EDGE task force of the Neurology Section of the APTA 6/2013

Summary Date

6/20/2013 

Purpose

  • A measure of functional lower limb muscle strength
  • May be useful in quantifying functional change of transitional movements

Description

Test Administration:

1.     Patient sits with arms folded across chest and with their back against the chair. With patients who have had a stroke, it is permissible to have the impaired arm at the side or in a sling

2.     Use a standard chair with arms (keep testing chair consistent for each retest). Chair heights recorded in literature vary, generally 43-45 cm

3.     Ensure that the chair is not secured (i.e. against the wall or mat)

4.     Patient Instructions: "I want you to stand up and sit down 5 times as quickly as you can when I say 'Go'."

o    Instruct to stand fully between repetitions of the test and not to touch the back of the chair during each repetition.

o    It is OK if the patient does touch the back of the chair, but it is not recommended

5.     Timing begins at "Go" and ends when the buttocks touches the chair after the 5th repetition.

6.     Provide one practice trial before measurements are recorded. If you are concerned that the patient may fatigue with a practice trial, it is OK to demonstrate to the patient and have the patient do two repetitions to ensure they understand the instructions

7.     Inability to complete five repetitions without assistance or use of upper extremity support indicates failure of test. (Any modifications should be documented)

8.     Try NOT to talk to the patient during the test (may decrease patient’s speed)

9.     Document speed and assist level (CGA, supervision, Mod I, or I) in the PT Standing Balance Section

 

 

Area of Assessment

Functional Mobility; Strength 

Body Part

Lower Extremity 

ICF Domain

Activity 

Domain

Motor 

Assessment Type

Performance Measure 

Length of Test

05 Minutes or Less 

Time to Administer

< 5 minutes, dependent on number of trials

Number of Items

1 item (5 repetitions) 

Equipment Required

Standard chair (43-45 cm height), stopwatch

Training Required

None

Type of training required

no training 

Cost

Free 

Actual Cost

Free

Age Range

Adult: 18-64 years; Elderly adult: 65+ 

Administration Mode

Paper/Pencil 

Diagnosis

Cerebral Palsy; Geriatrics; Parkinson’s Disease; Stroke; Vestibular Disorders 

Populations Tested

  • Cerebral Palsy
  • COPD
  • Healthy elderly
  • Knee osteo-arthritis
  • Low back pain
  • Multiple Sclerosis
  • Parkinson's Disease
  • Patients with functional mobility impairment in sit to stand transfers
  • Peripheral arterial disease
  • Renal transplant
  • Rheumatoid arthritis
  • Stroke
  • TKA
  • Vestibular Disorders

Standard Error of Measurement (SEM)

Children with Cerebral Palsy:

(Wang et al, 2011; n = 170 children, 108 with spastic diplegia and 62 with typical development, 22 of the children with spastic diplegia were tested twice within one week for test-retest reliability; mean age = 8.1 (1.8) for children with spastic diplegia and 8.7 (1.6) for children with typical development)

  • SEM = 0.02 (using the average of three trials)
  • SEM = 0.04 (using the first trial only)

Parkinson's Disease:

 

(Paul et al, 2012; n = 31; age (years) = 65.9 (8.8), range = 44 - 87; PD duration (years) = 7.1 (4.6), range = 1 - 19; Mini Mental State Examination Score (0 - 30) = 29.6 (0.9), range = 27 - 30; "ON" MDS-UPDRS motor score (0 - 132) = 25.0 (10.4), range = 8 - 47; H and Y stage (0 - 5) = 2.0 (0.8), range = 1 - 4; dyskinesia (>/ = 1 of item 4.1 of the MDS-UPDRS): n = 15; disabling dyskinesia (> 1 of item 4.3 of the MDS-UPDRS: n = 6; motor fluctuations (> 1 of item 4.3 of the MDS-UPDRS: n = 16)

  • SEM = 0.6

Minimal Detectable Change (MDC)

Healthy Elderly:

(Schaubert, 2005; n = 10 community-dwelling elderly individuals; mean age = 75.5 (5.8) years, Healthy Elderly)

  • MDC = 4.2 seconds

Stroke:

(Mong, 2010; n = 36 subjects, 12 subjects with chronic stroke, 12 healthy elderly subjects, and 12 young subjects; mean age = 26.2 (2.9) years for young subjects, 56 (3.7) years for healthy elderly subjects, and 60 (4.8) years for subjects with chronic stroke, Chronic Stroke)

  • MDC = 3.6 seconds

Children with Cerebral Palsy:

(Wang et al, 2011, Children with Cerebral Palsy)

  • MDC = 0.06 (using the average of three trials)
  • MDC = 0.11 (using the first trial only)

Minimally Clinically Important Difference (MCID)

Vestibular Disorders:

(Meretta, 2006; n = 117 patients, 45 men, 72 women with peripheral, central or mixed vestibular dysfunction; mean age = 62.7 years, Vestibular Disorders)

  • MCID = Greater than or equal to 2.3 seconds

Cut-Off Scores

Community-dwelling elderly:

(Tiedemann, 2008; n = 362 older community-dwelling people aged 74-98 years, Community-Dwelling Elderly)

  • Initial screening tool-cut off score of greater than or equal to 12 seconds to identify need of further assessment for fall risk.

(Buatois, 2010; n = 1,618 community-dwelling people over 65 years of age, Community-Dwelling Elderly)

  • To assess risk of recurrent falls-cut off score of > 15 seconds, especially in moderate risk category

(Mong, 2010, Community-Dwelling Elderly)

  • To discriminate between healthy elderly and those with chronic stroke, cut off score of 12 seconds

(Bohannon, 2006; individuals greater than 60 years of age, Community-Dwelling Elderly)

  • Estimate values for normal performance in community dwelling older adults
    • 60-69 years: 11.4 sec (mean time)
    • 70-79 years: 12.6 sec
    • 80-89 years: 12.7 sec

Parkinson's Disease:

(Duncan et al, 2011; n = 80; 59% men; mean age = 67 (9.0) years; mean Hoehn & Yahr Stage = 2.4 (0.6), (range 1 – 4); Individuals in each H & Y stage (I = 2, II = 2, III = 2 and IV = 1) were unable to perform FTSTS because they were unable to arise from a chair without using the upper extremities so these participants were given a score of 60 seconds, which was approximately 1 SD higher than the slowest performance time among those who were able to perform the task)

  • > 16.0 seconds indicates the risk of falls
  • Cut off score of 16 second discriminates fallers from non-fallers

Stroke:

(Mong, 2010, Chronic Stroke)

  • Cutoff score of 12 seconds is discriminatory between healthy, elderly, and subjects with chronic stroke.

Balance or Vestibular Disorders:

(Whitney et al, 2005; n = 81 controls (mean age younger = 41 (11) years and older = 73 (5) years) and n = 93 with balance disorders (mean age younger = 48 (10) years and older = 75 (7) years)

  • To identify balance dysfunction
    • Entire sample: 13 sec
    • Younger (< 60 years): 10 sec
    • Older (> 60 years): 14.2 sec

(Buatois, 2008; n = 2,735 consecutive voluntary subjects aged 65 and older in apparently good state of health consulting for a medical examination, Vestibular Disorders in the Elderly)

  • Cutoff score of 15 sec was predictive of fallers in elderly

Normative Data

Community Dwelling Adults:

(Bohannon, 2007; n = community dwelling adults; mean age = 51 (20.8) years, Community-Dwelling Adults)

Descriptive statistics for time (sec) for 5 sit-to-stand repetitions

Measurement (n)

Mean + SD

Minimum-Maximum

Trial 1:  all ages (94)

7.8 + 2.8

4.0 – 16.3

Trial 2:  all ages (94)

7.5 + 2.8

4.0 – 17.0

Mean: all ages (94)

7.6 + 2.7

4.0 – 16.0

Mean: 19-49 years (39)

6.2 + 1.3

4.1 – 11.5

Mean: 50-59 years (15)

7.1 + 1.5

4.4 – 9.1

Mean: 60-69 years (18)

8.1 + 3.1

4.0 – 15.1

Mean: 70-79 years (16)

10.0 + 3.1

4.5 – 15.5

Mean: 80-89 years (6)

10.6 + 3.4

7.8 – 16.0

 Descriptive Statistics for demographic and physical functioning data

Variable

Mean +/- SD

Minimum-Maximum

Age (years)

51.1 +/- 20.8

19 - 84

Weight (kg)

73.0 +/- 16.0

49.1 – 127.3

Height (m)

1.68 +/- 0.09

1.47 – 1.88

Body mass index (kg/m^2)

25.6 +/- 4.5

18.9 – 40.8

Physical functioning (%)

87.2 +/- 18.6

0 - 100

Parkinson's Disease:

(Duncan et al, 2011, Parkinson's Disease)

Correlation Coefficients Between FTSTS Test and All Variables
Variable
Correlation
P
Demographics
Age
0.37
0.001
BMI
-0.10
0.40
Questionnaires
PASE
-0.38
0.001
PDQ-Mobility
0.58
< 0.001
FOGQ
0.44
< 0.001
PDQ-SI
0.38
0.001
ABC
-0.54
< 0.001
Mobility Measures
Mini-BEST
-0.71
< 0.001
Quadriceps MVIC
-0.33
0.003
9HPT
0.55
< 0.001
6MWT
-0.60
< 0.001
NOTE. Pearson correlations were used for all measures.  Abbreviations: BMI, body mass index; MVIC, maximal voluntary isometric contraction.

  • Mean time = 20.25 seconds (14.12)

(Paul et al, 2012)

  • Mean score at baseline = 9.67 (1.79), range = 5.9 - 13.5
  • Mean score at retest = 9.48 (2.04), range = 6 - 15.2

Vestibular Patients:

(Whitney, 2005; n = 32 younger subjects without balance disorders, 47 younger subjects with balance disorders, 49 older subjects without balance disorders and 46 subjects with balance disorders; mean age = 41 (11) for younger subjects without balance disorders, 48 (10) for younger subjects with balance disorders, 75 (5) for older subjects without balance disorders and 75 (7) for older subjects with balance disorders, Vestibular Patients)

Descriptive Data for FTSST

Variable
Younger control
subjects (n = 32)
Younger subjects
with balance
dysfunction (n = 47)
Older control
subjects(n = 49)
Older subjects with
balance
dysfunction (n = 46)
Age (y)
Mean
41
48
73
75
SD
11
10
5
7
Range
23-57
14-59
63-84
61-90
Sex
Men
16
15
23
18
Women
16
32
26
28
FTTS Score
Mean
8.2
15.3
13.4
16.4
SD
1.7
7.6
2.8
4.4
Range
4.9-12.7
6.4-56.6
7.5-19.6
9.6-27.5
95% CI
7.5-8.8
13.1-17.6
12.5-14.1
15.1-17.7

Test-retest Reliability

Children with Cerebral Palsy:

(Wang et al, 2011, Children with Cerebral Palsy)

  • Excellent test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.99) using the average of 3 trials
  • Excellent test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.97) using the first trial only

(Wang et al, 2011, Children with Cerebral Palsy)

  • Excellent intra-session reliability (ICC = 0.95)

Community-dwelling elderly:

(Schaubert, 2005; n = 10 community-dwelling elderly individuals; mean age = 75.5 (5.8) years, Community-Dwelling Elderly)

·         Adequate test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.82)

(Tiedemann, 2008; n = 362 older community-dwelling people aged 74-98 years, Community-Dwelling Elderly)

  • Adequate test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.890)

 (Bohannon, 2007, Community-Dwelling Elderly)

  • Excellent test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.957)

Low Back Pain:

(Simmonds, 1998; n = 44 patients with low back pain and 48 healthy, pain-free control subjects, Low Back Pain)

  • Poor test-retest (ICC = 0.45)

Osteo-arthritis:

(Lin, 2001; n = 106 sedentary subjects with hip and/or knee OA, mean duration = 12.2 (11) years; mean age = 69.4 (5.9) years, Elderly with Osteo-Arthritis)

·         Excellent test-retest-excellent (ICC = 0.960)

 

Parkinson's Disease:

(Duncan et al, 2011)

  • Excellent test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.76)

(Paul et al, 2012)

  • Excellent test retest reliability (ICC = 0.91 (0.82 - 0.96))

Stroke:

(Mong, 2010, Stroke)

  • Excellent test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.994)

Interrater/Intrarater Reliability

Low back pain:

(Simmonds,1998, Low Back Pain)

  • Excellent interrater reliability (ICC = 0.99)

Parkinson's Disease:

(Duncan et al, 2011, Parkinson’s Disease)

  • Excellent interrater reliability (ICC = 0.99)

Stroke:

(Mong, 2010, Stroke)

  • Excellent intrarater (ICC = 0.970)
  • Excellent Interrater: (ICC = 0.999)

Internal Consistency

Not Established

Criterion Validity (Predictive/Concurrent)

Balance/vestibular disorders:

(Whitney, 2005, Balance/Vestibular Disorders)

  • Excellent correlation with ABC (rho = -0.68)
  • Adequate correlation with DGI (rho = -0.58)

(Meretta, 2006; n = 117 patients (45 men, 72 women with peripheral, central or mixed vestibular dysfunction; mean age = 62.7 years, Balance/Vestibular Disorders)

  • Adequate correlation with TUG (r = 0.59)
  • Adequate correlation with Gait speed (r = -0.53)

Low back pain:

(Novy, 2002; n = 133 consecutive adult patients with low back pain who were referred for physical therapy assessment; mean age = 45 (12.88) years)

  • Excellent correlation with speed and coordination activities with quickly changing spinal loads (r = 0.91)

Osteo-arthritis:

(Christiansen, 2010; n = 50 people with end-stage unilateral knee OA and healthy people 17 healthy people; mean age = 64.1(8.4) years, Osteo-arthritis of the Knee)

  • Adequate correlation with weight bearing asymmetry (r = -0.44)

Parkinson's Disease:

(Duncan et al, 2011, Parkinson’s Disease)

Predictors of FTSTS Test Performance in PD
Regression Analyses:
Model
Cumulative R2
β
P
Model 1
 
Mini-BEST
0.500
-0.58
< 0.001
9HPT
0.528
0.21
0.03
Model 2
 
Mini-BEST
0.506
-0.69
<0.001
9HPT
0.535
0.22
0.05
PDQ-SI
0.545
-0.12
0.34
Quadriceps MVIC
0.548
-0.06
0.52
PASE
0.552
0.06
0.58
FOGQ
0.553
-0.06
0.61
6MWT
0.554
-0.06
0.73
Age
0.555
-0.03
0.77
ABC
0.555
0.00
0.99
Abbreviation: MVIC, maximal voluntary isometric contraction. Cumulative R2 =  total Rwhen the variable in question plus all preceding variables have been entered into the model. β = standardized regression coefficients.

  • Adequate correlation with Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE), (r = -0.38 (p = 0.001))
  • Adequate correlation with Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire-mobility (PDQ-mobility), (r = 0.58 (p < 0.001))
  • Adequate correlation with the Freezing of Gait Questionnaire (FOGQ), (r = 0.44 (p < 0.001))
  • Adequate correlation with Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire-summary index (PDQ-SI), (r = 0.38 (p = 0.001))
  • Adequate correlation with the Activities-Specific and Balance Confidence Scale (ABC), (r = 0.54 (p < 0.001)
  • Excellent correlation with the Mini-Balance Evaluation Systems Test (Mini-BESTest), (r = 0.71 (p < 0.001))
  • Adequate correlation with quadriceps maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC), (r = -0.33 (p = 0.003))
  • Adequate correlation with the 9 Hole Peg Test (9 HPT), (r = 0.55 (p < 0.001))
  • Adequate correlation with the 6 Minute Walk Test (6 MWT), (r = 0.60 (p < 0.001))
  • Adequate predictive validity: Cut off score of 16 seconds discriminated fallers and nonfallers (area under the curve = 0.77; sensitivity = 0.75; specificity = 0.68)

Stroke:

(Beninato, 2009; n = 27; mean age = 57.2(12.4) years, Chronic Stroke)

  • Excellent correlation with the muscle strength of affected and unaffected knee flexors (r = -0.753 - 0.830)

(Mong, 2010, Chronic Stroke)

  • Excellent correlation with bilateral knee flexor strength
    • Affected (r = -0.753)
    • Unaffected (r = -0.830)
  • Not correlated with balance ability as tested with BBS

Total knee arthroplasty:

(Piva, 2011; n = 31 people with Total Knee Arthroplasty; mean age = 68 years, Total Knee Arthroplasty)

  • Adequate correlation with hip abductor strength (r =-0.56, p < 0.01) and quadriceps strength (r = 0.44, p < 0.01)

Construct Validity (Convergent/Discriminant)

Children with Cerebral Palsy:

(Wang et al, 2011, Children with Cerebral Palsy)

 

Convergent Validity of the Five-Repetition Sit-to-Stand Test and Mean Values of all Criterion Tests in Children with Spastic Diplegia
n mean(SD) r (rho)
1-RM of LSTS*
91
0.47(0.21)
0.59***
Isometric Muscle Strength
Hip Flexors*
18
0.27(0.08)
0.78***
Hip Extensors*
18
0.23(0.13)
0.68**
Hip Abductors*
18
0.27(0.09)
0.76***
Hip Adductors*
18
0.29(0.08)
0.30
Knee Flexors*
40
0.18(0.08)
0.50***
Knee Extensors*
40
0.31(0.11)
0.45**
Ankle Dorsiflexors*
18
0.09(0.06)
0.57**
Ankle Plantar Flexors*
18
0.46(0.12)
0.68**
Trunk Extensors (sec)
41
33.7(37.7)
(0.43)**
Functional Measures
GMFM-D (%)
64
81.8(13.1)
(0.65)***
GMFM-E (%)
64
68.9(21.1)
(0.75)***
Walking Speed (m/min)
45
57.2(15.0)
0.41**
PCI (beats/m)
45
1.0(0.5)
(-0.40)**
**P < 0.05; ***P < 0.001; correlation coefficients by Pearson (r) or Spearman (rho) correlation analysis; * values were normalized by body weight. 1-RM, 1-repetition maximum; GMFM, Gross Motor Functino Measure; LSTS, loaded sit-to-stand test; PCI, physiological cost index.

 

Community-dwelling elderly:

(Lord, 2002; n = 669 community-dwelling men and women aged 75-93 years; mean age = 78.9(4.1), Community-Dwelling Elderly)

·         Adequate construct validity with knee flexion and extension isometric force (r = -0.43, p < 0.01)

(Schaubert, 2005; n = 10 community-dwelling elderly individuals; mean age = 75.5 (5.8) years, Community-Dwelling Elderly)

  • Excellent correlation with TUG (r = 0.918) and gait speed (r = 0.943)

COPD:

(Ozalevli, 2007; n = 53 patients with stable COPD and 15 healthy individuals; mean age = 71 (12) years for patients with COPD and 63 (8) years for health individuals; using 1 Minute Sit to Stand Test, COPD)

·         Excellent correlation with 6MWT (r = 0.75, p < 0.001) and quadriceps strength (r = 0.65, p < 0.01)

 

Low Back Pain:

(Simmonds,1998, Low Back Pain)

·         Excellent correlation with 5 minute walk (r = -0.78, p < 0.01), 50 ft walk (r = 0.87) and repeated trunk flexion (r = 0.64)

·         Adequate correlation with lumbar flexion ROM (r = -0.45)

 

Multiple Sclerosis:

(Fry, 2006; using 6XSST, Multiple Sclerosis)

·         Excellent correlation with 6MWT (r = -0.82, p = 0.001) and functional stair test (r = 0.8, p = 0.001)

·         Adequate correlation with Borg RPE (rho = 0.51)

 

Renal transplant:

(Bohannon, 1995; n = 110 renal transplant candidates; mean age = 45.1 (11.6 years);using 10 Second Sit to Stand, Renal Transplant)

·         Excellent to adequate convergent validity with knee extension isometric force

o    non-dominant (r = 0.64)

o    dominant (r = 0.59, p < 0.001)

 

Rheumatoid Arthritis:

(Newcomer, 1993; n = 147 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or other chronic diseases; using 10 x Sit to Stand Test, Rheumatoid Arthritis)

·         Excellent correlation with 50 foot walk test (r = 0.66, p = 0.0001) and lower extremity manual muscle strength (r = 0.47, p = 0.0001)

 

Vestibular Disorders:

(Whitney, 2005, Vestibular Patients)

  • FTSST correctly identified 65% of patients with balance disorders (correctly identified 81% of individuals with balance disorders in younger patients (< 60 years old)).
  • Both ABC (80%) and DGI (78%) were better at identifying individuals with balance disorders.

 

Content Validity

Not Established

Face Validity

Not Established

Floor/Ceiling Effects

Elderly:

(Bohannon et al, 2006; a literative review of 14 studies; individuals 60 years of age or older, Elderly)

  • 60-69 y/o = 11.4 sec
  • 70-79 y/o = 12.6 sec
  • 80-89 y/o = 14.8 sec

Parkinson's Disease:

 

(Duncan et al, 2011)

  • Individuals in each H & Y stage (I = 2, II = 2, III = 2 and IV = 1) were unable to perform FTSTS because they were unable to arise from a chair without using the upper extremities

Responsiveness

Vestibular Disorders:

(Meretta, 2006; n = 117 patients; 45 men, 72 women with peripheral, central or mixed vestibular dysfunction; mean age = 62.7 years, Vestibular Disorders)

  • Moderate responsiveness in patients with vestibular disorders (0.58) and 2.3 sec. change predicted 49% of change on DHI

 (Whitney, 2005, Vestibular Disorders)

· Was not as sensitive as ABC or DGI in identifying people with balance disorders who had vestibular dysfunction (ability to discriminate people with balance deficits):

o    FTSTS = 65%

o    ABC = 80%

o    DGI = 78%

Professional Association Recommendations

Recommendations from the Neurology Section of the American Physical Therapy Association’s StrokEDGE Taskforce, MSEDGE Taskforce, SCI EDGE Taskforce, and the TBI EDGE Taskforce are listed below. These recommendations were developed by a panel of research and clinical experts using a modified Delphi process.

 

For detailed information about how recommendations were made, please visit:  http://www.neuropt.org/go/healthcare-professionals/neurology-section-outcome-measures-recommendations

 

Abbreviations:

HR

Highly Recommend

R

Recommend

LS / UR

Reasonable to use, but limited study in target group  / Unable to Recommend

NR

Not Recommended

 

Recommendations for use based on acuity level of the patient:

 

Acute

(CVA < 2 months post)

(SCI < 1 month post)

Subacute

(CVA 2 to 6 months)

(SCI 3 to 6 months)

Chronic

(> 6 months)

StrokEDGE

R

R

R

 

Recommendations based on level of care in which the assessment is taken:

 

Acute Care

Inpatient Rehabilitation

Skilled Nursing Facility

Outpatient

Rehabilitation

Home Health

StrokEDGE

R

R

R

R

R

MS EDGE

UR

UR

UR

UR

UR

 

Recommendations based on EDSS Classification:

 

EDSS 0.0 – 3.5

EDSS 4.0 – 5.5

EDSS 6.0 – 7.5

EDSS 8.0 – 9.5

MS EDGE

UR

UR

UR

NR

 

Recommendations for entry-level physical therapy education and use in research:

 

Students should learn to administer this tool? (Y/N)

Students should be exposed to tool? (Y/N)

Is this tool appropriate for use in intervention research studies? (Y/N)

StrokEDGE

No

Yes

Yes

MS EDGE

No

No

No

Considerations

  • The Five Times Sit to Stand Test (FTSST) is a quick and easy to administer test of an individuals's ability to transition between sitting and standing five times in a row
  • Individuals with a balance disorder performed the FTSST slower than controls (Whitney, 2005) and was more sensitive in a younger (< 60 years old) population
  • The FTSST is responsive to change in balance over time (Merretta, 2006)
  • Both DGI and ABC were more sensitive than the FTSST to detect individuals with balance disorders.
  • Many variations exist:

    • Ten Times Stand Test

    • Single leg sit-to-stand test

    • 1-minute sit-to-stand test

    • 10 Second Sit to Stand Test

    • Six Times Sit to Stand Test

    • 30 second sit to stand

  • Measurements of time are more precise (5x sit to stand; 10x sit to stand) then count of repetitions (30 second sit to stand; 10 second sit to stand). Individuals who are weak however may not be able to complete the requisite number of repetitions and consequently counting the number of repetitions in a pre set amount of time may be preferable for certain patient populations

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Bibliography

Beninato, M., Portney, L. G., et al. (2009). "Using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health as a framework to examine the association between falls and clinical assessment tools in people with stroke." Phys Ther 89(8): 816-825. Find it on PubMed

Bohannon, R. W. (2006). "Reference values for the five-repetition sit-to-stand test: a descriptive meta-analysis of data from elders." Percept Mot Skills 103(1): 215-222. Find it on PubMed

Bohannon, R. W., Smith, J., et al. (1995). "Deficits in lower extremity muscle and gait performance among renal transplant candidates." Arch Phys Med Rehabil 76(6): 547-551. Find it on PubMed

Buatois, S., Miljkovic, D., et al. (2008). "Five times sit to stand test is a predictor of recurrent falls in healthy community-living subjects aged 65 and older." J Am Geriatr Soc 56(8): 1575-1577. Find it on PubMed

Buatois, S., Perret-Guillaume, C., et al. (2010). "A simple clinical scale to stratify risk of recurrent falls in community-dwelling adults aged 65 years and older." Phys Ther 90(4): 550-560. Find it on PubMed

Christiansen, C. L. and Stevens-Lapsley, J. E. (2010). "Weight-bearing asymmetry in relation to measures of impairment and functional mobility for people with knee osteoarthritis." Arch Phys Med Rehabil 91(10): 1524-1528. Find it on PubMed

Duncan, R. P., Leddy, A. L., et al. (2011). "Five times sit-to-stand test performance in Parkinson's disease." Arch Phys Med Rehabil 92(9): 1431-1436. Find it on PubMed

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Created at 6/13/2012 5:22 PM  by Jason Raad 
Last modified at 7/9/2014 9:40 AM  by Jennifer Moore